|Table 1 - a neverending choice of media|
·advertising spots (television, video, poster, press, radio) appearing in regional, national or international forms
·sponsorship of program material (ranging from "this program is brought to you by..." to advertorials, ie media forms in which the distinction between program content and commercial message is blurred)
·sponsorship of events (eg from global sports to local community festivals)
·taking a public stand on an issue (eg The Body Shop gained continental fame by being one of the first brands to petition against an EC directive. This related to cosmetics and "animal testing")
·cosmopolitan visibility, eg through franchised outlets in all the world's most fashionable shopping arcades to being displayed at airports' duty free shops a channel which in itself stimulates jetsetters-word-of-mouth
·own news stages (from owning the media like Disney to creating a media event like Beaujolais' global birthday party)
·being an integral part of world news (eg McDonald's Moscow opening)
·co-branding, ie where two brands share a promotional platform
·corporate identity and brand signage
·your people as media who serve the brand's lifestyle or represent its competence leadership
·sampling (ranging from through letter box, to in somebody else's store, to in your own boutique (eg Haagen-Daz's ice cream parlours) to high traffic locations (eg your capital city's largest railway station) to high visibility places (from first class air cabins to spectators at Prince Charles' last polo match)
·point of sales material
·points of service contact (eg in most banks the most common point of contact has evolved away from the service counter inside the bank to the automated 24-hour cash dispenser outside the bank and will evolve in a future cashless society to ordering from "smart-coded voice-activated in-home banking-menus")
·fashionable product placement eg in films and film stars' wardrobes
·a leaflet inside the product packaging
·consumer feedback mechanisms such as free telephone hotlines for dialogue about the brand
·collectors' schemes, loyalty clubs
·one to one direct/database marketing (postal media, computer media, and one day computerised multimedia)etc
|Table 2 : Media and Practice - Extracts from the video "Branding - the Marketing Advantage", from BBC for Business|
I am constantly bombarded with offers to advertise here, support this, sponsor that. The key focus has to be to know your consumer and how to get at them, but then to say what are the opportunities. Sometimes the new opportunities can be useful because they allow you to get at a discreet segment of that market, more efficiently or more cost-effectively - particularly if it's new and it's keen to get new advertisers on board. (Chris Hobbs, 3M)
I guess traditionally it has been very easy for marketers to communicate with their consumers because they've had a series of tools - broadcast television, PR, press etc and those have had extraordinary reach against a broad mass of consumers. The problem is that nowadays consumer groups - and the media they use - are segmenting. It's necessary to talk to them in different ways.
(Claire Watson, Haagen-Dazs)
A key problem is developing a totally integrated communications mix because different creative suppliers provide these services and historically people have been given briefs at different moments of time and these have not really connected together. It's as if the brand has evolved without a master briefing and you end up with components of the brand in conflict with each other which consumers can see even if their brand marketers can't. (Chris Macrae)
As a customer you receive quite a bit of direct mail from us and if you lay out all the pieces of communication across the table, we actually did this exercise, and if you looked at each one, you would say "All these communications look like they come from 20 different companies". And they did. And we were losing impact with the customer...So we said right, we must address this. We've come up with some guidelines and rules for developing a consistent tone of voice and a consistent looking feel for our brand, so now going forward any type of communication we send you looks as if it is coming from American Express.
(Russ Shaw, American Express)Most brands including product brands are now more or less service brands and they really have to be delivered, irritatingly, by things that walk around on two legs. It's a human thing, and you know humans have to be motivated in order to keep on performing at a high level. (Chris Mole, Coopers & Lybrand)
|"Advertising is going through a bad period. Commercial clutter is worse than ever. The cost of media has ballooned. The cost of commercial production is scandalous. The problem of client conflicts is driving agencies round the bend. Worst of all, the trend to cut advertising budgets in favour of below-the-line deals is out of control. Do you realise what is going on? Manufacturers of package goods are now spending twice as much on below-the-line deals as on advertising. To put it another way, they are sending twice as much on price-cutting as on building brands. Manufacturers are buying volume by price discounting, instead of earning it the old-fashioned way using advertising to build strong brand franchises. Manufacturers are in fact trading consumers to buy on price instead of brand"|
|Table 3 : Master execution of the humble product leaflet.|
Inside every pack of King Oscar "Brisling" sardines, you, as consumer, will likely find a leaflet appealing for your loyalty with text like this:
The word "Brisling" is emphasised on the label of the product you have purchased. There are strong reasons for setting "Brisling" apart from other sardines.
Facts you should know ·No specific fish is called sardine. The word "sardine" finds its origin from the Mediterranean Isle of Sardinia. There small fish were caught and canned for more than a century. It is only after the small fish are put in a can, packed in oil and hermetically sealed that the fish can take the name : SARDINE. This means that there are a large number of species of fish from many countries offered as sardines.
·However, there are no small fish for packing sardines like Norwegian Brisling.
·Brisling are a member of the Herring family and are caught primarily in the cold, unpolluted ocean waters of the Norwegian Fjords.
·Brisling are caught for packing when they are two years old. this is when the species has reached its mature size and the fat content is exactly right. The Norwegian Government has appointed Federal inspectors who determine when the fish quality reaches its peak.
·Most species used for packing sardines from countries other than Norway are caught before they reach mature sizes (usually 6 to 12 months old).
·Because Brisling are caught when they are older than other sardines, they have time to accumulate fat which is low in "Bad" cholesterol and very high in Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 is considered of value in the prevention of heart attacks.
·Once the Brisling are caught, they are kept alive in a purse net for 3 days. During this period, the Brisling digest and naturally rid themselves of stomach contents. This self-cleansing process (Thronging) ensures that there are no "sediments" present in Norwegian sardine products. No other sardine packers use this process.
·Brisling, upon arrival at the cannery, are smoked in large ovens using oak wood. The natural flavour of the smoked Brisling creates a unique taste unlike that of any other sardine product. Sardines from countries other than Norway are either chemically "smoked" or not smoked at all.
·Brisling sardines, packed in Olive Oil, matures in the can just like good wine does in the bottle. This has to do with oil penetrating the flesh of the fish and blending with the fish oil. The Brisling in oil, that has been stored in your cabinet for more than 2 years, may be called vintage.
Our many thanks to you for purchasing King Oscar Brisling Sardines. We, at King Oscar, will continue to keep up our high standards and hope for your continuous support, also, please tell a friend.
Sincerely,KING OSCAR, INC.
|Table 4 : Advertising and the power of fame|
All major advertising media are still - in the original sense - broadcast media. Like the sowers of seeds, they cast their messages very broadly indeed - and the advertiser is left hoping that enough of them fall in the right place to make the whole thing pay for itself.
But that is about to change. Within a startlingly short period of time, consumers - real people - will be able to demand and receive any medium, any part of any medium, any brochure, any advertisement that they choose - and it could be an advertisement designed for an audience of one.
I believe it to be true that Sheba is one of the successful pioneers of relationship marketing : one-to-one marketing; direct marketing. I believe it to be true that, if my cat is on Sheba's database, on his birthday my cat will get a birthday card. And should I, as the owner, tell Sheba that my cat has unfortunately expired, I will get a small book from Sheba helping me to live with cat grief. And I find it very easy to believe that this form of marketing may be extremely cost-efficient and successful - and many of the new technologies that are speeding our way will help speed the development of relationship marketing.
But what about brands? Just about the only thing brands have in common is a kind of fame. If the phrase global brand means anything, it's not that everyone in the world consumes it - or even that everyone in the world could consume it. It's just that everyone in the world has heard about it. Fame lends a curious value to things - and to people. Famous things can be shared, referred to, laughed about. Famous things are, literally, a talking point. We talk about the weather because we know about it, it affects us all, it is a shared experience.
Remember the way that Sheba does it - and then think about the way Richard Branson has done it. Not a lot of sophisticated targeting there, it seems to me - but a tremendous amount of sophistication nonetheless, because he's realised (in both senses of that word) the value to Virgin of simple fame. Some from advertising, some from sponsorship, some from stunts and public relations: but a fame so precise and yet so general that it can now add value to music and air travel and vodka and even cola.
There's private marketing communication, already important and likely to get more so. And there's public marketing communication, already important and certain to remain so.
Public communication through the advertising of a big idea maintains the relevance of brands over very long periods of time. It's big and bold and confident and public: look at BMW, look at British Airways. It creates and maintains the brand warmth we (marketers) consciously borrow every time we launch a brand extension. It delivers now... and next year... and in 10 year's time. It reaches people who will never fly British Airways and people who will never buy a BMW - but whose knowledge and views and opinions are still of immeasurable value, not least to that minority that does fly and does buy.Extracted, and partially edited from a speech by Jeremy Bullmore (November 1994 : speech at the IPA President's Breakfast, Savoy Hotel, London)
|Table 5 : Some debatable answers on how "being in the news" works for a mass market brand|
•Convey a popular image of the brand (ie one that a consumer expects everyone to see in the brand)
•Make a declaration in public, eg a guarantee which the brand will live up to
•Applaud loyal consumers (most consumers like to see their brand in the news, and -apparently- winning against competitive brands)
•Make news items that are reported by journalists
•Make a brand into a celebrity whose consumption transfers some of its celebrity status
•Capture and symbolise a mood of the times
•Establish the brand as a reference point, against which other brands are compared by critics and public
•Make brand a topic of social conversation
•Make brand famous and endorsed by opinion leaders•Motivating employees
|Table 6 - some debatable answers on which media can play a lead role in making the essence of a brand "newsworthy" |
In this table, <reference is to Benchmarking of named brands in ThinkPiece 1>·Advertising can.
<Gillette, British Airways for transnational broadcasting; Benetton or Haagen-Dazs for transnational "word-of-mouth">·Packaging and design can.
·Developing your own retail or display channel can.
<Body Shop> ·PR and world-staging can.
<McDonald's, Weight Watchers>·"Brand Seeding" can.
<Haagen-Dazs> ·Price-cutting cannot.
·Promotional competitions cannot (unless they are intimately linked to the brand's essence)
·Direct marketing through mail shots cannot?
And so on.
|How to create a fashion out of my product|
|How to become newsworthy·High visibility|
|How to be seen as desirable·Opinion leaders|
·Success to success
·Hard to get?·Sexy?
|How to get other people to create the identity for you·Legends|
·Unique point of sales
·Jetsetters' word of mouth
·Great photographic images
|How to get people to try it·Sampling|
·Line targeting urgent/impulsive need
|How to move from country of strength·Borrow national identity|
·"Seed" local desire for world's favourite
·Offer exclusive premieres to partners·Create jetsetting media/stages
|How to spread the gospel of the world's number 1·Be the ambassador of the product category|
·Offer sneak previews to VIP audiences
·Lead on quality/service commitments - globally & locally·Heroise products' unique positive qualities
|Table 7 : In the place of 8 branding fiefdoms, First Choice is born|
In the summer of 1994, there was notable applause in The UK's business press for Francis Baron of travel business First Choice (né Owners Abroad). His stewardship was regarded as remarkable because of dramatic gains made in the direction of integrated branding. His company's had come to the brink of a marketing crisis - eight brands were too many for an industry leader - it meant that his company's advertising pot was split into half-million pound dollops whereas the leading competitors were Thomson's(£7.5m) and Airtours'(£4.1m). In a frenetic 12 week integration program : Francis appointed different agencies - eg advertising, corporate identity, and consumer PR - and got them working together. Says one of the agency heads: "Francis exhibited unusual skill giving each agency clear responsibilities and strict deadlines - there wasn't time for the political manoeuvring that you sometimes get in these circumstances". Says Francis: "I had made it clear at all agency pitches that their managing director had to be account director...Part of their job was to go back to their agencies and rally the ranks if some of their ideas weren't chosen".
|Table 8 : Some Components of Brand Service Organisation of Singapore Airlines|
The Singapore Girl has been the theme of the company's advertising for more than 20 years. She's "our icon". She portrays the kind of image we want, and the quality of service that we give. And we are very proud of her.
The most important thing about training is that you don't just focus on technical training, but the softer aspects too. For example you can train a stewardess to pour a cup of coffee for a passenger. The technical aspects of that are to make sure it doesn't spill, the cup is in the right position and all that. But we add to that soft training which is about attitude - a warmth, a friendliness, the anticipation behind pouring that cup of coffee.,, In addition, you've got to recognise your staff. Every year our managing director gives out awards for staff who go out of their way to serve passengers and make sure that passengers are delighted.
It's no good just being good at training your staff or just giving good in flight service, all these things must happen simultaneously. It is doing things in a coordinated whole, so the value to a customer is compounded and he gets an entire package.
We participate in a lot of frequent flyer programmes like with British Airways and Swiss Air etc, but that is really buying loyalty. You buy the loyalty by giving travel mileages for passengers. We also think it's important to have the loyalty of the passenger so that he appreciates what you do for him. That's why we have our PPS - Priority Passenger Service - scheme. We collect data on these passengers, so for example, we know not that he is a whisky drinker, but which is his brand and we make sure he gets it in his hand before he even asks for it. The ideal point is reached when the passenger's hobbies or needs are satisfied. For example if you have a passenger that likes gardening he will get his favourite gardening magazine that he normally reads so that he will not miss out on an issue while he travels. And I think the ultimate will be reached when on his next visit to Singapore you get the Director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens which is world famous to bring him around personally to the Orchid enclosure for example, so I think this is what we are talking about when we say exclusive service.