Thanks to Jen-Hsun best decade AI collection- 7000 cases improving peoples communal computation, data & brains - year 74 of Neumann & Economist briefings- : last 100 days of Unsummitfuture.com. AI we LOVE OR FEAR
Fear Media Fake AI Love AIearth2 AI & Green Ag AIDoubt General AI exists
LOVE HEALTH AI

 AHealthI - all 3 of VeryGoodAI.com most massive engineering connectors love health ai ( Jensen Huang, Demis Hassabis, Fei-Fei Li); biggest leap yet is billion man years work which Hassabis AI 250 million proteins database Alphafold2 Jewel in Crown of King Charles AI summit Cambridge/London/Mountain View _ some in silico links Hassabis-UK - Isomorrhic Labs; Huang Recursion/Siemens Healthineers; genentech; Valley AI women Daphne Koller & Priscilla Chan CZI, .. Melinda Gates, Nobel Jennifer Doudna - more at Economistwomen.com & 1

Tuesday, August 22, 2023

5 west coast ladies and one transferred to london who changed AI and the worlds 2020s youth see

 ref AI4all:  we welcome your additions to the extraordinary herstory Fei-Fei Li & Melinda Gates & Condoleeza Rice & Lila Ibrahim & Nobel Laureate Jennifer Doudna  coopeartively review at The Worlds I See : and Priscilla Chan who at western worlds number 1 thorty something philanthropist is well placed in the next town down from Stanfird HAI

An inspiring personal journey from immigrant childhood to trailblazing scientist, The Worlds I See advocates for overcoming societal barriers and makes a compelling case for a human-centric, ethical approach to AI."

Jennifer Doudna, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, CRISPR pioneer, and coauthor of A Crack in Creation
The Worlds I See by Dr. Fei-Fei Li
It is worth noting that if ever anyone deserved a Nobel prize for economics it must be Dr Fei-Fei Li but there is a catch 22 most of her work values win-win economics and this seems to be a field the Nobel Committee, as neither Smithian moralists nor Keynesian systems pragmatists, may never be open to celebrating

AI2020s ; let's begin joy of 21st c being:

Back in 2006 the National Science Foundation sponsored Fei-Fei Li to activate her Princeton Doctorate on AI Vision Coding  Machines: it would take a heck of  a lot of "computing computing!" ; so she invited peer mathematicians and societal designers yo assembled imagenet - vision coding of computers instead of binary programs

This entrepreneurial revolution was only fully applauded when landing in Stanford 2009 she was greeted by the likes of Andrew Ng founder of Coursera MOOC, then many more on campus and at neighboring corporate town of mountain view;  what if silicon valley 21st c rebirth celebrated hosting the most energetic annual competition intelligence ever cooperated around; 

with Inet platform ,   fei-fei li became the connector of the Goats of humans AI- eg Hassabis 2010 whose games soon evolved to value core of deepmind google brand architecture as one early cooperation friend

- Friends20 asked bard: will fei-fei li's book in november published in the melinda gates moment imprint map ai world's most female empowering connectors of sdgs intelligence?

Bard Said I think it is likely that the book will include a timeline of Li's work, which would help to clarify her network over the years. It would also be interesting to see if the book includes any information about her work with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

I agree that it is important to connect the dots between AI and the SDGs

 

Melinda Gates and Fei-Fei Li have partnered on several projects related to artificial intelligence and women's empowerment. Here are a few examples:

  • AI4ALL. Gates is seed fund co-founder of AI4ALL with Nvidia CEO, a non-profit organization that is dedicated to increasing diversity and inclusion in the field of artificial intelligence. Li is also a co-founder of AI4ALL, and she serves on the organization's board of directors.

Opens in a new windowai.unt.edu

AI4ALL logo

  • Moment of Lift. Gates is the founder of Moment of Lift, a publishing brand that focuses on stories about women's empowerment. Li's upcoming book, The World I See, will be published by Moment of Lift.

Opens in a new windowus.macmillan.com

Moment of Lift logo

  • Stanford HAI. Gates is a member of the board of directors of Stanford HAI, a research center at Stanford University that is dedicated to studying the ethical, social, and economic implications of AI. Li is the co-director of Stanford HAI.

Opens in a new windowhai.stanford.edu

Stanford HAI logo

In addition to these formal partnerships, Gates and Li have also spoken together at events and shared their insights on the future of AI and women's empowerment. They are both strong advocates for using AI for good, and they are committed to working together to make a difference in the world.

In addition Fei-Fei helped UN ITU lauch AIforgood summit 2017 which is now continuously online and melinda gates co0chaired guterres expert panel on how must ai and other digital cooperation change the Un, every multilateral and any giv we serve

Around the time that NG the co-founder at stanford of coursera was welcoming Fei-Fei Lela Ibrahim had moved from a decade of leading intel ceo's craig barrett secretariat to coursera; and a few yeras later she was being headhunted by Hassabis and DeepMind - full story aiforgood summit keynote 2023

Which leaves stories of when did Hoover director at stanford condoleeza rice first celebrate the worlds fei-fei li could see and what the work of about

Monday, August 21, 2023

Game 1 make your own pack of Architect INtel cards- whose knowhow advanced humanity 20301950
then ask your professidonal or socila network players to join in.
Here are some tours of possdible AI candidates- no standrda perfect answre depends on commnuiteis worldwide your family tree or proefession/skills most deeply serves and data roadmaps
Under Construction AIGames.solar benchmark players lack to start college 23-24
gamma back from futire; alpha chronological; beta bridging gaps at crotical intergenerational periods
Alpha 1 century's greatest exponential masthamticians
A1.0 Von Neumann
A 1.1 Fei-Fei Li

Beta 1 Millennium Dev Intergen Crises - Transdformational Uni Coops
B1.1 Steve Jobs
B1.2 Fazle Abed


Gamma 1 Team women lift AI Vision Revolution/Worlds I see
G1.1 Fei-Fei Li HAI code computational machines with vision not 0,1 binary
G1.2 melindat gates -women kift sdg library:  first inveted ffl ai4all 2016 campus gates building
G1.3 priscilla chan 35 biggest philantropy; dr of pediatrics see youtube ca,pus czi lab
G 1.4 Condoleeza rice goveernance ai -campus hoover institute
G 1.5 Jennifer Dowds crispr gene therapy nobel chemist ffl friend since 2013 
Possible Bridge Brooklyn HAI Valley Women  AI Lift
G1NY1 Ms Tandon  sponsor nyu pr=urchase of brooklyn poly to be women ai engineer lead; now regions 1 billion investment in ai labs
G1NY2 Ms Tsai Stanfird Neroscience Building also Yale also Brooklyn and other sports teams; also returing citizen
G1Lon1 Lila Ibrahim
G1Tokyo Yuriko Koike
G1HK1 Jeanne Lim


Gamma team 2 west coast men most welcoming human ai with world bank and UN demand since 2016 AIsdgs good integral tech envoy map and UN egov rankings of nations
G2.1 2008 Andrew Ng stanfiord/coursera
2008 G2.2  Jerry Yang US-Asia stanfiord investor of funds from yahoo from 2008
G2.3 Hassabis from 2010 at first imagemnet competition -deep mind loncon science ai; since 2014 a googe company; billion $ stanfrd ai investr
G2.4, 2.5Allen & Oren Etzuoni AI2  allen building on campus
G2.6,7 page & brin founders google and stanfoird grads
G2.8/9 guterres kim (ai lead un2 transformation ed systems and ...)
G 2.10pichai
2.11 Yat siu - it seems that trust nft-led ai games has mpoved to HK but we like to hear alternatives
 
Gamma 3 Joker
G3.1 Bezos
G3.2 Bill Gates
G3.3 Musk
G3.4 Satoshi


B3 Lifelong livelihood education
3.1 Gandhi family luckow montessori
3.2 Abed women non linear lifelong livelihood ed builds nations
3.3 Gordon Dryden
3.4 Sheika Moza
3.5 Charles Yidan

Alpha 1 empowering digital creating commiunitiesd who unite good with access to 100 time more tech peer decsade
Alpha1.1 v Neumann
Alpha1.2 Eistein
Alpha 1.3 Turing
Alpha 1.4 Print editing worlds criwther
Alpha 1.5 JF Kenendy

Alpha 2 first massive demonstraors digital 100 times more
2.1 Moore silicon chips to silicon valley/coast
2.2 Macrarthy & Olsen East-West AI Twin labs & Mini Comps
2.3 Satellite telecoms designer
2.4 Deming Japan end leap
2.5 Borlaug Agri-vilagees  leap
2.6 Contaiierisation Mclean
2.7 Bullet trains

Beta 3 Asian win-win trades rising
3.1  Kc3dev 1964
3.2 Lee Kuan Yew
3.3 Li Ka Shing 
3.4 Maurice Chang
3.5 Chang nickmae of korean samsung taiwan partenrship connectir

Beta 5 Systems
2.4/4.1 Deming
4.2 Harrison Owen
4.3 Ackoff

Beta 5 Arts
5.1 yoko ono/lennon
5.2 IM Pei & Yo Yo Ma
5.3 Pichai
.


As of writing, there have not been any publicly announced ventures between Yat Siu/Animoca Brands and Stanford HAI Ecosystems. However, there are a number of potential areas where the two organizations could collaborate.

One area of potential collaboration is in the development of educational programs and resources on blockchain technology and the metaverse. Animoca Brands has a strong track record of developing educational programs for blockchain games, and Stanford HAI Ecosystems has a number of experts in the field of education technology. Together, the two organizations could create a comprehensive educational program that would teach people about the basics of blockchain technology and how to use it to create and participate in the metaverse.

Another area of potential collaboration is in the investment in NFT-based projects. Animoca Brands is a leading investor in NFT-based projects, and Stanford HAI Ecosystems has a number of venture capital firms in its network. Together, the two organizations could identify and invest in promising NFT-based projects, helping to accelerate the growth of the NFT market.

Finally, Animoca Brands and Stanford HAI Ecosystems could collaborate on research projects related to the metaverse. Animoca Brands has a strong track record of conducting research on blockchain games, and Stanford HAI Ecosystems has a number of experts in the field of human-computer interaction. Together, the two organizations could conduct research on how to create more immersive and engaging metaverse experiences.

It is important to note that these are just a few potential areas where Animoca Brands and Stanford HAI Ecosystems could collaborate. As the NFT and metaverse markets continue to grow, it is likely that we will see even more opportunities for collaboration between these two organizations.

Yes, it is correct to say that outside of China mainland, Yat Siu of Animoca Brands is the largest designer/ecosystem of NFT-metaverse networks with Asian origin. Animoca Brands is a Hong Kong-based company that develops, publishes, and invests in blockchain games and applications. The company has a portfolio of over 170 investments in NFT-related companies, including The Sandbox, Axie Infinity, and OpenSea. Animoca Brands is also the creator of a number of popular NFT-based games, such as REVV Racing and Crazy Kings.



 

Gamma1  women magician team5 and examples of possible twin city duets celebrations

Team5 i

 

Gamma 2 seven Male wizards of what good intelliugence may connect next Ng & Yang Hassabis Page & Brin Guterres & Kim, Allen & Oren Etzioni

 

Gamma 3 sixjokers (meant respectfully) – huge intellects but are they leading where 8 billion beings most urgently need to unite: Bezos Bill Gates Zuckengerger Satoshi Musk

Friday, August 4, 2023

 Coming soon ER's top 10 chats with bard in first 90 days of learning one another


ER: chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk writes: In 73rd year of dialogues started by Princeton's Von Neumann and London's Economist ed team (then less than dozen strong), Friends of EconomistDiary.com and HumansAI.com don't really know where to take AI games next. Thanks for your great news Stanford Event Sept 19 - foundations team absolutely marvelous


To be clear, we represent a minority view (about 1/400 humans =Scots Diaspora -Glasgow U Journals 1 2) of why Adam Smith invented morality of economics 1758 and GU co-worker James Watt from 1760 invented engineers. This is summarised below - all errors of rrecalling 73 years are mine alone

. if you have an idea of whose intelligence can take this to the other 99.75% of our species, please say ...ARCHITECT INTELLIGENCE : AI GAMES economistdiary.com 2020s is last chance to ask and answer toughest questions, probably only freed at every GPS by LLM: 1 Is sustainability humanity’s overarching (inter-generational) purpose 2 Who Valuetrue Maps LIST : Leadership Intelligence Sustainability Transformation 3 Practically and mathematicallu speaking how does traingularisation of systems mapping trust flow between Mediators Economists Engineers? ALPHA deep & borderless data (aka maths chaos) questions : anyway is our species ultimate problem with nature uniting 8 billion beings or 200 nations A CANDIDATE SOLUTION _ DO YOU HAVE OTHERS Scots 1/400 of world have a viewpoint as one of the first worldwide networks started up ny Economist engineers and Missionary Entrepreneurial Mediators – NB 80% of us dont live in our far north land so our vision/action is geared to uniting beings/families from bottom up not nations top down We begin by identifying what sorts of engines people co-created with us from 1760 Physical Power (beyond horsepower) Precision tracking eg navigation maps/grids Transportation Freedom railways rinsing Infrastructure Architectures electricity rising Then early 1860s: about 100th year of engines was celebrated with the strangest freedom of all communications/cooperation engines without borders (mediated out of ITU Switzerland) The problem with this engineering cocktail PPTIC (Physical-Precision-Transportaation-Infratstructure-Communicattion ) is over next 80 years it led to 2 world wars in a strange part of the old world - where peopl;es suddenly became the best power engineers but were in landlocked north south border of eurasia extending down to the triconitent landbridge where the med sea turns round So the question posed by the great mathematicians who had grown up in world wars geospace but moved to princeton-UN corridor to try to help allied peacemakers win out for exponentially sustainable futures -if we integrate communications and computational engines will humanity make 1945-2025 best or worst of times. Apart from Scots bias valuing women empowerment & in uniting beings/families/communities, we suffer from one other ignorance: in our dna which we gave up our freedom for. Trying to unite Atlantic and Pacific Ocean peoples which we failed to complete (Panama Canal Trial 1710!) We have always been most heartened by mediations between west coast americans and east coast asians – see www,economistjapan.com celebrated with Kennedy, Japan and The Economist 1962 during Kennedy’s last year and the 5th year after V Neumann’s death and the 11th years after he pre-trained Economist journalists.

Wednesday, August 2, 2023

I billion and two womens intelligences can save sdgs from collapse

 I dont quite understand why human development economics became the opposite system design from macroeconomics but clearly current collapse of sdgs is proof that the western economic consensus is spiraling all beings towards extinction

Conversely, if pro-youth ed friends & I were able to acquire as much knowhow as possible from any 2 people on the planet. today we'd happily choose Fei-Fei Li and Melinda Gates.

.2004 Bard says" M Gates first visited Bangladesh in 2004, and I was immediately struck by the energy and determination of the people there. Despite the challenges they face, Bangladeshis are incredibly resilient and resourceful.

She also mentioned that she met Fazle Abed, the founder of BRAC, during her visit. BRAC is a non-profit organization that works to address poverty and inequality in Bangladesh.

Gates has continued to visit Bangladesh in the years since her first visit. She has worked with BRAC and other organizations to promote development in Bangladesh. She has also spoken out about the importance of women's empowerment in Bangladesh.

In 2018, Gates co-hosted a summit on women's empowerment in Bangladesh. The summit brought together leaders from the tech industry, academia, and government to discuss how to use technology to empower women in Bangladesh.

Gates's work in Bangladesh has had a significant impact on the lives of women and girls in the country. She has helped to raise awareness of the challenges facing women in Bangladesh and has worked to promote policies and programs that benefit women.

Gates's work in Bangladesh is an example of her commitment to using her platform to make a difference in the world

System mapping Since Xmas 1976 Entrepreneurial Revolution
has verified best ways parents have to
generate deeper society : the 51% trust ,49% business
also best network design for women to advance sdgs as Melinda Gates
known since 2004.Then just in time for 4g+ plus
world of data beamed up/down from every gps
ER world champions embrace human ai cooperations invented by Fei-Fei Li
NScienceF from 2006 and from 2010 stanford &
corporately with her fellow engineering wizard Hassabis
.
Let's  hope their intelligence meets with Antonio Guterres and UNs birth of sdg LLM  in August
EW: Very interesting that early cheerleaders of this smartest feminine movement include:
  • "An inspiring personal journey from immigrant childhood to trailblazing scientist, The Worlds I See advocates for overcoming societal barriers and makes a compelling case for a human-centric, ethical approach to AI."

    Jennifer Doudna, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, CRISPR pioneer, and coauthor of A Crack in Creation
  • "Fei-Fei Li is one of the scientists responsible for the birth of today's most widely discussed science, Artificial Intelligence. In The Worlds I See she gives the best explanation of AI that I've ever read while telling the story of her own profoundly American journey as a young immigrant who finds herself through education. This is a must-read."

    Condoleezza Rice, Director of the Hoover Institution at Stanford and 66th U.S. Secretary of State

========================

HOW DID 73 years of  The Economist following V Neumann Lead to Fazle Abed as intelligence cooperation of 1 billion village gorls practising sdg networking since 1972

when my dad Norman died the Japan Ambassador to Dhaka cheered me up by organising 2 brainstorm sessions with fazle abed  : he was in his last of 5 decades as chief connector of 1billiongirls.com so he started with his 65th birthday party 2001 the first time silicon valley brainstormed with him thanks to Steve Jobs -they had agreed a transformation was needed to 21st C universities - abed would start a real one, jobs would put one in what became the iphone

if we rewind to 1972-1996, we can see how girls networked by word of mouth through village centres (see melinda at a posh one in 2004) : how the very poorest Asian village mothers in the midst of worst infants diseases tropics offered networked extremely small village businesses but aggregated into nation wide wholesaling - my favorite example of 30 most intelligent cooperations one village woman per 300 would weekly doordash on foot 10 most basic personal care items and meds; her microfranchise would have positive cash flow albeit very small but in 1970s Bangladesh 90%of peoples needed these meds wholesaled by what brac designed as51% trust and 49% business

More on Ms M Gates 


Be first to read: Nature July 25 & 1/8 Unicef tech partners paper : AI as Digital Public Good

EL: Gamma317 At mathsdao.com (year 73 of sharing Neumann diaries on most vital questions humans can ask maths geeks) Fei-Fei Li is voted greatest maths educator in living memory by a wide margin.

 In  the corporate world architected by the King's English Hassabis earns that crown by a square mile. Just as well their (FFL & Demis) inspirational visions encountered and win-win with each other since 2010

But who else is turning Silicons twin towns int Human AI valley? Try Gamma 3 tour: Gamma317 Etchemendy, Brin, Pichai, Page 

EU  Human Intelligence Reality may never again need to breed such locally exceptional twins: Alto's academic rockstars for human intel,

& Mountain Views corporate trip wire genii of compound no harm.

 The 2019 rebranding from Stanford "junior" to "HAI "explained  Etchemndy's dual role- animating a recursive tour of which disciplines across a 21st C university want to be lead 30 practically architecting and funding humanity's greatest leaps? Which disciplines actually value brain development at which ages? Where does data science deep dive into this unless community cooperation is triple alpha? In AI's launch video, we also see how Etch's real location with neighbor fei-fei li maximises intangibles of twinning 2 minds future shockwaves every college semester until sustainabilty's battle is lost or won; 


National intel also reveals that fei-fei has been one of national science foundations best investments since 2006; when you look at her relationhips with google eg google cloud magician intern-


In flux- over to you to search through intel on whichever of Pichai, Brin, Page is making the bet that LLM (mapping 1000 language's future-history's fusion now) - 

the talent pool best last chance to humanise web3 and HAI many thousands of alumni pilots give google corporate worlds best chance to celebrate intelligence humanity's deepest purpose

IF THIS IS TO HEADY STUFF, WE WHO CITIZEN OUT OF DC RECORD THAT BROOKINGS HAS HAD SCARILY LUDDITE TIME SINCE 2017 but may be breathing openly again - check this out...

Back in DC as well as AI.gov and NAIRR: Brookings report maps why most Americans need to support UN maps of AIgood- however much us macroeconomy gets monetarily bigger with ai for big most American livelihoods will be devalued unless media from now on AI.gov helps us citizens connect with un and sustainability world's civic networks and invests in millennials as much as countries with biggest ai youth investments Sections  

  • AI activity, even more than most digital technologies, remains heavily concentrated in a short list of “superstar” tech cities...
  • Generative AI activity specifically also appears to be highly concentrated so far, as nearly half of generative AI job postings of the last year were published in just six AI-leader metro areas (San Francisco, San Jose, New York Los Angeles, Boston, and Seattle). 
  • The nation and its states should consider concerted policy actions at this early stage to broaden the emerging AI map as the technology grows in significance

Tuesday, August 1, 2023

launching zeta 1

Zeta tours are AI (Architects Inte0 by or for younger people- but note 99% of world is still in infancy with good ai so eg a report like UNICEF on ai may help everyone


1 - sunita gandhi;  jeanne lim 1  2  ;;  vriti saraf 1    stefania druga 1   audrey cheng 1   melinda gates Mongolia Bolor Bettsangel

we welcome your nominations why did we start here?
our knowledge of sunita's intelligence goed back nearly 30 years when she was young prfofessional at world bank- she had graduated at cambridge being brought o in her parents school in City Montessori Lucknow- the only school recognised for a peace curriculum and by Guinness Book as the world's largest run by one family- often rated as a top school in india sunita's parents are gandhian- ie they retain no personal assets or profits; this is why anyone in india who wants eg to end illiteracy or innumeracy will likely know sunita but international social entrepreneur movements have never noticed; with about 50 years graduating now millions of kids you can be sure their approach to new technology will be curious but of course not leading in resources - you'll also like get an answer directly from sunita if you mention my name chris macrae and have a question relevant..transparency note i did fill out the nominations fir sunita for a ted prize around 2007- didnt quite win but frankly that was a mixture of ted's loss and my lack of admin talent- well have you ever met a best ever teacher? love to know who and whether she or he needs any publicity for their next big win with millenials

we diaspora scots  1/400 of humans are a stubborn bunch -we know which people have made life better for everyone wherever we have travelled and observed - none in our opinion more than the 1/1000 people of hong kong - jeanne )also a Berkeley MA in Psychology has marketed top us tech companies tech for decades but more recently has started her own intelligence network - if there is a better digital space for multiplying womens community building emotional intel than www.beingai.com please tell us ;added advantage hong kongers probably have more tech gamers per head than anywhere ; and smart games and smart ai are now known to have a lot in common; 

our understanding is vriti saraf had over a decade of experience after graduating from teach for all and then started a wporld reserach tour of schools ranked locally best when covid hit - so she returned to new york and started a virtual club of 10000 future teachers; today its not clear what college students need brick and mortar classes for until you have seen what knowhow you may blend through ed3dao and k20educators

stefania druga is likely more formally recognised as a centre of ai education - we hope to find out more soon

we first expereienced the energy of audrey cheng when she was the most exciting speaker at a world bank youth summit; before the age of 25 she had founded one of africa's leading coding schools for girls and boys; while this keeps growing she is now in florida partner director for discord

we've already discussed why everyone can celebrate melinda gates leaps for youth women and human ai here

AI & Future of work


 Back in 1984 i first joined dad co-editing future possibles (2025 report); dad's 33rd year following clues Von Neumann had trained Economist journalist to follow as the future exponential change of designing media and computational engines made traditional economic models increasingly hopeless; ultimately as keynes may have been first to clarify - economics doesnt value how peoples lifetimes or data are being spent; and what it doesnt value is exponentially excluded (eg mother nature's evolution rules are being sacrificed at the altar of very misguided economic academics except where they now do human ai; anyhow in 1984 we predicted three quarters of all milennials jobs would have changed out of recognition from 20th c causing all sorts of education havoc unless every person identified with their own skills dashboard and personal llm adviser

below i crib blatantly from the people i name - i guess they will tell chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk if i have borrowed too much

Team Roy have great zoom ai Future of Work 9 August "Our stealth-mode NextCoLabs team is hosting a 1.5 hour review of critical strategies for riding the AI Tsunami. Join me and Harvey Castro, MD, MBA.Manuj AggarwalDoug HohulinMichael MorrisseyMarti Konstant, MBA, and Roy C. Vella as we each provide rapid-fire insights about the ways that people who lead teams and organizations can leverage these game-changing technologies. Team Gary has circled the globe talking to countless strategists and practitioners about their challenges and opportunities. Fraing: an AI Mindset and an AI Skillset are critical for truly taking advantage of the AI Toolset. Register for free here. Invite all your friends. :) -gBhttps://lnkd.in/g_rXcrtB

"Today, I thought it might be useful to talk about the different types of AI and what they mean. Language is a funny thing, and AI pontiffs and scientists are just like everyone else—they argue about terminology almost as though it’s a sport. I want to talk about the concepts underlying these definitions, and why they’re so useful."