|Table 1 : What sums up Italian culture? "Ferrari - it is all that is beautiful"|
So goes the consensus reply in Italy. And author Andrew White, in "The Centenary of the Motor Car", is only a shade less passionate "Motoring would not be the same without Ferrari; in the case of motor racing it can be said with certainty that 'Ferrari is a cult; Ferrari is Italy".
Ferrari is the ultimate dream car. It has speed, grace, beauty and a roll of honour that runs from here to Le Mans. Ferrari has won 9 driver's world championships, 8 Formula One constructor's world championships and 14 sportscars championships.
And certainly Ferrari is symbolic of Italy. Stylish, cool, sophisticated - it couldn't have been built anywhere else. To Italians it is more than that. Through post-war Italy's troubled times, Ferrari was there contributing to the rehabilitation of national pride - gaining respect throughout the world both industrially and in sporting terms.
Ferrari's universally known insignia - a prancing horse, the cavallino rampante - is even further seeped in Italian history. Legend has it that this was originally the personal emblem affixed to the fuselage of a fighter plane by a gold medal winning pilot in the first world war. He died, but his parents presented a portrait of the horse to Enzo Ferrari when he won the 1923 Circuito di Ravenna. In turn Ferrari adopted this as his firm's logo, representing it against a yellow background - the symbolic colour of his native city Modena where Ferrari's production facilities remain to this day. brand strategy, 28 October 1994
|·Familiarity, it's become a routine part of my day - eg does the same brand meet you at every breakfast time?|
·Simplicity, it makes choosing easy - eg amongst dozens of purchases for the household I make every week, most are routine or frankly boring. In all honesty, I shop on auto-pilot in many categories. If I'm buying replacement batteries - I just want them to last a long-time, fit the appliance and be safe. The brand which I recognise as communicating simply that is a good sort to know. It saves my time and is hassle free.
·Habit, I have been a customer there for twenty years and I am too lazy to change -eg my bank.
·Best Friend, if you don't think that some brands make deep friendships, you have probably never let your children near Ronald McDonald!
·Image, like the clothes I wear, being seen with this brand is part of my image and the impression I make on my peers, and myself
·Mood changer, when I want a break from writing/reading this book I have been known to reach out for my favourite chocolate bar.
·Fan club, I have bought that brand so often that to tell you the truth when I see it in the news I applaud it - and myself. Rather like you might applaud your football club when it's had a winning day.
|Role playing of brand by purchaser as a function of P-C-W meaning|
Image to wear
|Table 2 : Some lessons from implementing brand seeding across countries|
Key elements of seeding mix include: premium product and pricing, strong design, PR, word of mouth, visibility in fashionable places
Roll out criteria include:
Go from one success to another, ie do not necessarily go to the biggest market or channel first
Do not use mass marketing techniques until your exclusive image is thoroughly planted, eg mass advertising can kill off a seeding strategy if it is executed before the brand's cachet is firmly in its opinion leaders' minds
All opinion-leading audiences - eg journalists, business partners, prestige retailers, consumer opinion leaders - can be seeded in parallel
Diffusion (ie transfer) tactics can be aimed within a group, from one group to another, across cities/countries (eg jetsetters-word-of-mouth), across distribution channels
Tricky addendum:Some seeded brands form a mixed range of product lines including flagships that are never intended to be profitable because they are made as limited editions or specifically placed in high visibility arena where the distributor charges the brander for the privilege. In this case, the brand team (including marketing and financial personnel in particular) must be absolutely clear as to which product lines are image-making flagships and which are to be best sellers. And corresponding performance criteria and measurements require subtly different monitoring instruments.
|At the beginning of the eighties, the Motherly McDonald's had a fleeting French affair. France's tradition of gourmet food probably did not make it seem likely to be one of the most important lead-countries in the company's European advance. so the business in Paris was licensed to a single franchisee. The McDonald's fast food concept soon proved itself to be just as welcome with busy Parisian families as other Europeans. Unfortunately, McDonald's franchisee, flushed with the success of the business, was equally tempted to choose such prime take-away sights as a shopping arcade dominated by St Lazare's pornographic movie house as he was to select respected boulevards for all the family. McDonald's had to buy back the franchise as a matter of urgency.|